Condition - Depression

Depression can be described as feeling sad, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. It is widely related to mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for weeks or longer.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of depression can include:

  • Agitation, restlessness, and irritability
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness
  • Thoughts of death or suicide
  • Trouble sleeping or too much sleeping


The exact cause of depression is not known and many studies suggest that depression is caused by chemical changes in the brain. Depression may be caused due to:

  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • Certain medications such steroids
  • Sleeping problems
  • Certain medical conditions, such as underactive thyroid, cancer, or long-term pain


Some common treatment options for depression include:

  • Medications called antidepressants
  • Talk therapy, called psychotherapy
Condition - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations, or behaviour that make them feel driven to do something.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Obsessions or compulsions that are not due to medical illness or drug use
  • Excessive counting
  • Excessive fear of germs
  • Checking and rechecking actions


Several studies have shown that there are brain abnormalities in patients with OCD, but more research is needed. Some reports also suggest that OCD is related to head injury and infections.


OCD is generally treated using medications and therapy. The first medication usually considered is a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be the most effective type of psychotherapy for this disorder.

Psychotherapy can also be used to:

  • Provide effective ways of reducing stress
  • Reduce anxiety
  • Resolve inner conflicts
Condition - Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it difficult to tell the difference between what is real and not real. It also makes it difficult for an individual to think clearly.

Signs and Symptoms

Schizophrenia symptoms generally develop slowly over months or years. Other symptoms include:

  • Irritable or tense feeling
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Bizarre behaviours
  • Isolation
  • Lack of emotion
  • Hearing or seeing things that are not there


A combination of genetic and environmental factors plays a major role in the development of schizophrenia.

  • Certain events may trigger schizophrenia in people who are at risk for it because of their gene
  • You are more likely to develop schizophrenia if you have a family member with the disease


Antipsychotic medicines are known to be the best available treatment for schizophrenia as they change the balance of chemicals in the brain and help control symptoms. As schizophrenia is a life-long illness, most people with this condition need to stay on antipsychotic medication for life.

Supportive therapy may be helpful for many people with schizophrenia.

Condition - Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome is typically a condition that causes people to make repeated, quick movements or sounds that they cannot control. These movements or sounds are called tics.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of Tourette syndrome can range from tiny, minor movements (such as grunts, sniffling, or coughing) to constant movements and sounds that can't be controlled.

  • Arm thrusting
  • Jumping
  • kicking
  • Eye blinking
  • Shoulder shrugging
  • Repeated throat clearing or sniffing


This syndrome is related to problems in certain areas of the brain. There is strong evidence that Tourette syndrome is passed down through families, although the gene has not yet been found.


Patients with Tourette syndrome who have very minor symptoms are not treated because of the side effects of the medications.

Drugs used to treat tics include:

  • Antiseizure medications
  • Blood pressure medicine
  • Botulinum toxin injections
  • Dopamine blockers