Condition - Adenoids

Adenoids are small lumps of lymphoid tissue located posterior to the nasal cavity, in the roof of the nasopharynx, where the nose blends into the throat. They play a major role in younger children helping them fight ear, nose and throat infections. After 3 years of age they are no longer needed. Adenoids generally reach their maximum size when your child is between three to five years of age and then begin to shrink by age seven and can hardly be seen in the late teens.

Due to infections, adenoids swell up and block the nose which can sometimes lead to breathing problems during sleep. It can also be a major cause of snoring.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of swollen adenoids include:

  • Difficulty in breathing through nose
  • Noisy breathing
  • Snoring
  • Stopped breathing for a few seconds during sleep
  • Frequent sinus symptoms


There could be several reasons behind swollen adenoid gland including:

  • Child born with an enlarged adenoid
  • Respiratory infection
  • Tonsils


In its initial stage, adenoids are treated using various antibiotics. However, they do not provide much relief if the infection is very serious and chronic. The doctors are then left with the option of removal of adenoid glands. This procedure is known as adenoidectomy.

  • Adenoidectomy – Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids, which helps get rid of the symptoms permanently, while antibiotics provide temporary relief and cannot be used for long-term treatment.
Condition - Eardrum Perforation

Eardrum perforation refers to a hole or rupture in the eardrum, a thin membrane that separates the ear canal and the middle ear. Another medical name for eardrum is tympanic eardrum. The middle ear is connected to the nose by the Eustachian tube, which equalizes pressure in the middle ear.

Signs and Symptoms

There are several signs and symptoms of a perforated eardrum including:

  • Ear pain
  • Hearing change or loss
  • Fluid or blood draining from the ear
  • Vertigo (spinning sensation)


Following reasons are responsible for the onset of eardrum perforation including:

  • Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi
  • Infections causing pressure on eardrum
  • Accident
  • Blast waves
  • Falls
  • Sports injuries
  • Lightning blasts


Following treatment options are available for eardrum perforation:

  • As most perforated eardrum injuries heal on their own within few weeks, treatment may include analgesics to reduce pain and antibiotics to prevent infection
  • Myringoplasty – This is a surgical procedure done to treat a perforated eardrum when it fails to heal on its own. It involves using a piece of grafted skin taken from another part of the anatomy and placing and securing it over the hole.
Condition - Meniere's

Ménière's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low-pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Unilateral or bilateral tinnitus
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sweating


The major causes for Ménière's disease include:

  • Middle ear infection
  • Head trauma
  • Upper respiratory tract infection
  • Smoking cigarettes
  • Alcohol consumption


Available treatment options include:

  • Various environmental and dietary changes are advised
  • Low consumption of high salt diets
  • Intratympanic steroid treatments involve injecting steroids
  • Physiotherapy
Condition - Nasal Airway Obstruction

As its name suggests, nasal airway obstruction is a condition where the nasal passage gets blocked and makes it difficult for an individual to breathe through his nose. Sometimes the cause of nasal airway obstruction is enlarged turbinates. Turbinates are small, bony structures located in the nasal passages that are covered with mucous membranes. This condition makes everyday activities such as eating, speaking, and sleeping more difficult.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Difficulty in breathing, eating, and sleeping
  • Frequent nasal congestion
  • Headache
  • Nose bleeding


There are many causes of nasal airway obstruction including:

  • A deviated septum
  • Hormonal changes
  • Allergies
  • Environmental irritants


Traditional medical therapy, including allergen/irritant avoidance and/or use of nasal medications, may be enough to treat turbinate enlargement. However, following treatment options are possible:

  • Septoplasty – This is a surgical procedure carried out to correct the shape of the septum of the nose.
Condition - Sinusitis

Sinusitis refers to the inflammation of the sinus membranes due to an infection caused by a virus, bacteria, or fungus. The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull. Following are the types of sinuses:

  • Frontal sinuses
  • Maxillary sinuses
  • Ethmoid sinuses
  • Sphenoid sinuses

If the opening from a sinus cavity becomes blocked, the flow of mucus gets blocked and results in pressure buildup causing pain and inflammation.

Signs and Symptoms

The most common symptom of acute sinusitis is a cold that doesn’t go away. Other symptoms are:

  • Bad breath or loss of smell
  • Cough, often worse at night
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Sore throat


Sinusitis can be caused due to following reasons:

  • Small hair in the sinuses
  • Cold and allergies
  • A deviated nasal septum
  • Smoking
  • Weakened immune system from HIV or chemotherapy

  • Generally doctors suggest antibiotics or decongestants for several weeks. Pain killers can also be given to provide relief.
  • Antihistamines or nasal sprays are prescribed to treat the allergies that cause chronic (recurrent) sinus infections.
  • If medicines do not result in positive outcomes, surgery is done to treat chronic and severe sinusitis. During the surgery, surgeons create an extra or enlarged passageway in the wall of the sinus cavity. It allows the sinuses to get more air easily and free from infection.
  • Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) – This surgery is done to treat chronic symptoms of sinusitis.
Condition - Tinnitus

Tinnitus is a condition when an individual hears a sound that no one else can hear. Different people hear different types of sounds such as ringing, buzzing, or other sounds. This condition can vary in intensity and can be constant or frequent. Tinnitus can sometimes lead to hearing loss.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Hearing a sound that no one else can hear
  • Ringing, buzzing, or any other sound


The causes of tinnitus are:

  • Ear infection
  • Excess wax in the ear
  • A pierced eardrum
  • High blood pressure
  • A benign tumor on the acoustic nerve


Different treatment options include:

  • Use of hearing aid, if hearing is impaired
  • Use of a tinnitus masker which masks the tinnitus with ‘white noise’
  • In some cases, tinnitus goes away without any treatment